Prior to this date Fisher had denounced various abuses in the church , urging the need for disciplinary reforms. This was in the wake of numerous other controversial writings; the battle against heterodox teachings increasingly occupied Fisher's later years. In Fisher ordered the arrest of Thomas Hitton , a follower of William Tyndale , and subsequently interrogated him. Hitton was tortured and executed at the stake for heresy. Fisher's copy of this still exists, with his manuscript annotations in the margin which show how little he feared the royal anger.
Fisher, as a member of the upper house, the House of Lords , at once warned Parliament that such acts could only end in the utter destruction of the Catholic Church in England. The Commons , through their speaker, complained to the King that Fisher had disparaged Parliament , presumably with Henry prompting them behind the scenes.
The opportunity was not lost. Henry summoned Fisher before him, demanding an explanation.
This being given, Henry declared himself satisfied, leaving it to the Commons to declare that the explanation was inadequate, so that he appeared as a magnanimous sovereign, instead of Fisher's enemy. Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London , A year later, in , the continued encroachments on the Church moved Fisher, as Bishop of Rochester, along with the Bishops of Bath and Ely , to appeal to the Holy See. This gave the King his opportunity and an edict forbidding such appeals was immediately issued, and the three bishops were arrested.
Their imprisonment, however, must have lasted only a few months for in February , Convocation met, and Fisher was present. This was the occasion when the clergy were forced, at a cost of , pounds, to purchase the King's pardon for having recognized Cardinal Wolsey 's authority as legate of the pope; and at the same time to acknowledge Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in England, to which phrase the addition of the clause "so far as God's law permits" was made through Fisher's efforts. A few days later, several of Fisher's servants were taken ill after eating some porridge served to the household and two died.
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A cook, Richard Roose , was executed by boiling alive for attempted poisoning. Fisher also engaged in secret activities to overthrow Henry. As early as he began secretly communicating with foreign diplomats. In September communicating secretly through the imperial ambassador Eustace Chapuys he encouraged Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to invade England and depose Henry in combination with a domestic uprising. Matters now moved rapidly. In January of the next year, Henry secretly went through a form of marriage with Anne Boleyn.
Cranmer's consecration as a bishop took place in March , and, a week later, Fisher was arrested. It seems that the purpose of this arrest was to prevent him from opposing the sentence of divorce which Cranmer pronounced in May, or the coronation of Anne Boleyn which followed on 1 June, for Fisher was set at liberty again within a fortnight of the latter event, no charge being made against him. In the autumn of , various arrests were made in connection with the so-called revelations of the Holy Maid of Kent, Elizabeth Barton , but as Fisher was taken seriously ill in December, proceedings against him were postponed for a time.
However, in March , a special Bill of Attainder against Fisher and others for complicity in the matter of the Maid of Kent was introduced in Parliament and passed. By this, Fisher was condemned to forfeit all his personal estate and to be imprisoned during the King's pleasure. Subsequently a pardon was granted him on payment of a fine of pounds.
The same session of Parliament passed the First Succession Act , by which all who should be called upon to do so were compelled to take an oath of succession, acknowledging the issue of Henry and Anne as legitimate heirs to the throne, under pain of being guilty of misprision of treason.
Fisher refused the oath and was imprisoned in the Tower of London on 26 April He was to remain in the Tower for over a year, and while he was allowed food and drink sent by friends, and a servant, he was not allowed a priest, even to the very end. A long letter exists, written from the Tower by Fisher to Thomas Cromwell , speaking of the severity of his conditions of imprisonment.
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Like Thomas More, Bishop Fisher believed that because the statute condemned only those speaking maliciously against the King's new title, there was safety in silence. However, on 7 May he fell into a trap laid for him by Richard Rich , who was to perjure himself to obtain Thomas More's conviction. Rich told Fisher that for his own conscience's sake the King wished to know, in strict secrecy, Fisher's real opinion.
The effect was precisely the reverse:  Henry forbade the cardinal's hat to be brought into England, declaring that he would send the head to Rome instead. In June a special commission for Fisher's trial was issued, and on Thursday, 17 June, he was arraigned in Westminster Hall before a court of seventeen, including Thomas Cromwell , Anne Boleyn 's father , and ten justices. The charge was treason , in that he denied that the King was the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Since he had been deprived of his position of Bishop of Rochester by the Act of Attainder , he was treated as a commoner, and tried by jury.
The only testimony was that of Richard Rich. John Fisher was found guilty and condemned to be hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.
For fear of John Fisher's living through his patronal feast day , that of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist on 24 June, and of attracting too much public sympathy, King Henry commuted the sentence to that of beheading , to be accomplished before 23 June, the Vigil of the feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist.
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He was executed on Tower Hill on 22 June John the Baptist, who was also beheaded; his death also happened on the feast day of Saint Alban , the first martyr of Britain. Fisher's last moments were in keeping with his life. He met death with a calm dignified courage which profoundly impressed those present. His body was treated with particular rancour, apparently on Henry's orders, being stripped and left on the scaffold until the evening,  when it was taken on pikes and thrown naked into a rough grave in the churchyard of All Hallows' Barking, also known as All Hallows-by-the-Tower.
There was no funeral prayer. Fisher's head was stuck upon a pole on London Bridge but its ruddy and lifelike appearance excited so much attention that, after a fortnight, it was thrown into the Thames , its place being taken by that of Sir Thomas More, whose execution, also at Tower Hill, occurred on 6 July. Fisher was a figure universally esteemed throughout Europe and notwithstanding the subsequent efforts of the English government, was to remain so.
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Erika Rummel - - Oxford University Press. John C. Olin - - Fordham University Press. The accession of Elizabeth I was marked on 17 November. The failure of the Gunpowder Plot was celebrated on 5 November. Patrick Collinson is also concerned with the impact of Protestantism. Not long ago, the dominant view was that in the later 16th century England became a Protestant country, but in recent years this has been vigorously challenged. Collinson attempts to assess these challenges.
QAB Interview with Religious Scholar, Stephanie A. Mann - Queen Anne Boleyn
He draws on contemporary sermons, of which he has an unrivalled knowledge, and on much recent writing: his acute intelligence and allusive style give his book the character of a searching review or a sparkling tutorial. He allows that if God was regarded as an Englishman, he had been so regarded from the 14th century. He grants the claims of Medievalists that in practice, given the influence of kings over the pre-Reformation Church, the royal supremacy claimed by Henry VIII was not so novel.