The mention of the word "silent" in the title published in Wharton's collection, appears contrary to the construction of poetry or the poetic voice. Although "Politics" describes a different political situation facing the world in the s, Yeats again chooses not to focus on politics but the "girl standing there. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A Commentary on the Collected Poems of W. Stanford University Press p.
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Yeats by Norman Alexandere Jeffares. Stone Cottage: Pound, Yeats, and Modernism. Through shaping radio broadcasts, the research also impacts on educational resources at all levels School and HEIs as well as providing a general cultural benefit, to poetry readers specifically, and to a general audience, thereby bringing current trends in research out to a wider public. It has enabled and facilitated literary events that have themselves had impact beyond the academic sphere, through collaborative initiatives with external organisations as well as with individual artists.
The impact derives from critical work on modern poetry published by Fran Brearton over the last 12 years. At a time when cross-border, or cross-community remembrance, in Ireland and Northern Ireland respectively, was still a highly controversial issue, or indeed non-existent, her research demonstrated the importance of the First World War to Irish literature.
She established a new frame of reference for reading WWI literature in Ireland, recognising that the experiential soldier-poet paradigm that dominates English literary criticism is not applicable, and proposing instead a different model for understanding Ireland's literary relation to the Great War, one that affirms subsequent generations of poets through the century as, in a different way, poets of the First World War too. The chapter on Graves constitutes the first sustained critical consideration of Graves and his war experience in an Irish as well as British context; that on MacNeice, following on from Edna Longley's pioneering work in the s in affirming the relevance of MacNeice's Irishness to his critical reception, analyses his response to world war, its effect on his reception, and redefines his relation to British poetry of the s in the process.
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She has also provided the only sustained critical account in print of the nature and importance of the friendship between Graves and Sassoon during the Great War as well as giving the fullest literary-critical explanation to date for its demise The Oxford Companion to Modern British and Irish War Poetry OUP, The research established Brearton as the foremost authority on Longley's work. It also established a critical understanding of Longley's influence on a subsequent generation, explored in The Oxford Handbook of Modern Irish Poetry Proceedings of the British Academy , Vol.
ISBN: Brearton, Fran, and Alan Gillis, eds. Brearton's eloquent, agile, and intellectually daring book transforms 'the debate' about Irish poetry in a decisive way. Dust rose up then from the bandaged feet, shuffling, Loaded the verminous clothes. Silent, an upward river, Their haste was the less because they were going to death. Moreover, individuality is debunked by this vision of a flow, of an indistinct mass of people led to total destruction. Similarly, bodies are reduced to damaged parts and ghostly envelopes soon to be eaten up, namely verminous clothes.
The first two sentences, with their broken syntax, lack a proper human subject: feet are shuffling on their own accord to a fatal destiny. In other poems, language destruction seems to take the form of a noisy multilingual gobbledygook, which, however, turns into a form of resistance.
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Alles ist kaput. The poor man dies in war. He threw dust in our eyes. Jene Scheissherrn!
There is no longer harmony between man and beasts: soldiers are grotesquely transformed or insulted as animals, from dog to pig and frog with a climactic moth, mite in French, making a the pun on semite. This name-giving is not like a biblical act of creation but a cry of scorn and destruction.
Further on, speech is disordered into a jungle of languages and a mosaic of comments which are juxtaposed, not linked.
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The different translations or pseudo translations are another subversion of the poem and create a tension towards excess or multiplicity of meaning, a carnival mirror of sense. Language is hence taut to the point of rupture, of hemorrhage, and an excess of meaning leads to meaninglessness: this poetry runs the risk of implosion. George Campbell Hay appears quite avant-gardist in this poem as his subversions suggest that modernity does not lead to harmony and emancipation but to destruction, meaninglessness and silence.
Hybridization, however, together with a destructured, injurious language, is a form of impurity and struggles against Nazism as a perversion of modernity. The impulse can already be felt in pre poetry and takes on new forms which do not lead to but resist silence while being critical of their own status. Poetic survival, however, requires more than these devices and a way of going round, of avoiding an impending doom, is through subversion, humour and polyphony.
Eclogue itself is a subversive mode, as it was used by Virgil in order to comment upon war. No wonder pastoral should be taken up to describe the post-war traumas of the First and Second World Wars. War humour is indeed well-known for depicting foreign armies in comically losing situations or for caricatures of their soldiers. Both are meant as a survival break outlet from moral tensions. One interpretation would be that the poet is debunking the war-effort advertisements, implying that their aim is to help the civil morale more than anything else. The joke relaxes tension and the energy which was used to deny or hide war is liberated and reinjected into the poem.
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Laughter embraces both poles of change, it deals with the very process of change, with crisis itself. Combined in the act of carnival laughter are death and rebirth, negation a smirk and affirmation rejoicing laughter. This is a profoundly universal laughter, a laughter that contains a whole outlook on the world.
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Such is the specific quality of laughter linked to times of crisis and renewal. This undermines a sense of rhythmical closure at the end of the poem. These subversive oppositions create tensions which are then fueled by a joyous polyphony of slogans, quotations and the different voices of the persona. The result is another reinjection of ingenium or life which turns the poem into an energetic mass, a powerful defence against outside violence done to poetry. Ridiculing propaganda with agricultural references, it proves poetic disobedience and resistance remain active and language is still able to lead to freedom.
Sound, because though it almost falls silent during World War Two, nature may still be heard, albeit indirectly, in all poems, as a common bond, a sound one. Fury because it is sometimes forgotten among the impairing, horrifying noises and atrocities of war—but also because its energy and subversive power help poetry still resound. Attridge, Derek. The Rhythms of English Poetry.
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London and New York: Longman, Chemama, Roland and Bernard Vandermarsch. Dictionnaire de la Psychanalyse.